Process Writing

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Writing may be personal/informal or public/formal. Formal writing may be labeled a theme, an essay, or a composition. It should contain a thesis sentence which is the statement of the purpose of the writing. Depending upon the type of paper and complexity, paragraphs within the writing may have a topic sentence which controls the ideas within the paragraph and relate back to the thesis.

Formal Composition Form is the acceptable format for essay writing which meets the following requirements:

  • It should have a title.
  • No abbreviations should be used.
  • Capitals should be used according to standard rules.
  • Paragraphs should be indented.
  • It should be written in ink or typed.
  • End and internal punctuation should follow standard rules.
  • Standard language should be used avoiding slang.
  • Spelling should follow standard usage.
  • It should usually be written in 3rd person.

The introduction or opening paragraph of a composition is intended to catch the reader's interest. It tells the reader or audience (who may be actually addressed) the purpose and topic of the paper. Main ideas are frequently included. A "wow" or interest factor improves the effectiveness of an introduction.

Ways to wow are to use a significant quote, ask a rhetorical question, tell a story or anecdote, define a term in an unusual way, make a statement, or include a startling fact or statistic.     

The conclusion or ending paragraph of a composition is intended to bring the composition to a logical end. It may suggest action to be taken, summarize main points, restate the central idea, or end on an appropriate quotation. 


Transitional devices are used to lead the reader from thought to thought. They provide a coherence and unity to writing. Words and phrases are the most common method of showing transition. Frequently, transition is merely the coordination or subordination of ideas which is why many of the following words and phrases are a form of conjunctions.

Transition Methods

  • Conclusion/Result - in conclusion, consequently, hence, accordingly, therefore, to sum up, thus, as a result, to repeat, evidently, in other words, or these reasons
  • Contrast/Qualify - on the other hand, otherwise, on the contrary, however, nevertheless, but, still, anyway, yet, despite this fact
  • Emphasis - definitely, extremely, absolutely, positively, naturally, surprisingly, always, forever, perennially, eternally, never, emphatically, unquestionably, without a doubt, certainly, undeniably, without reservation
  • Equal Ideas - and, moreover, too, also, furthermore, in addition, finally, in the same fashion, again, similarly, likewise
  • Illustration - thus, namely, for example, for instance, to illustrate, in summary, that is
  • Time or Place - then, first, second, next, meanwhile, further, soon, later, eventually, to the left, in due time, finally
  • Parallel construction of parts of a sentence or whole sentences or whole paragraphs are another transition technique.
  • Repetition of specific words and implied repetition through the use of pronouns or synonyms also show transition.
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